first Rock N' Roll group hit should be credited to the Crows with
"Gee" on the legendary blue Rama Label, Rama #5. This recording is
responsible for laying the groundwork for thousands of vocal group records on
major and independent labels to follow through the 1950's and into the early
Goldner by 1953, had successfully entered the latin music field with his Tico
Label. He started Rama to feature young local NYC groups who were primarily
without formal training.
"Gee" hadn't become a hit, it is doubtful that Goldner would have kept
pursuing further success in the Rock N' Roll vocal group market. In view of
Goldner's many subsidiary labels that succeeded Rama, mainly Gee (named after
the Crows hit), Roulette, Gone and End, we owe an undying graditude to the Crows
for the Teenagers, Cleftones, Wrens, Dubs, Imperials, Chantels, etc.
"Sonny" Norton, William Davis, Harold Major and Gerald Hamilton made
up the Harlem bom Crows. The Crows (at the time fashionably named after a bird)
became the first group to "make it" from the fertile
talent‑laden grounds, 142nd St, Harlem USA. They were the king pins with
their '55 Chrysler and Crows written on the sides. However, their popularity was
short lived when the Solitaires took over in 1955 as the Street Kings of 142nd
St. between Seventh Ave. and Lenox Ave.
Crows are known as one of the most innovative groups of that era making use of
four part harmony chords. Although their hit was uptempo the groups ballads are
embraced by R n'B enthusiasts, purest and collectors. "Seven Lovely
Days", "I Love You So", "Untrue", "Miss You",
"Heartbreaker" make use of a strong baritone and a wavering floating
tenor, the groups trademark.
Crows also backed up Lorraine Ellis for Goldners Gee Label, and recorded the
latin flavored "Mambo Shevitz" for Goldner's Tico Label.
great uptempo recordings in the "Gee" style on Rama by the group
include "Baby", "I Really Really Love You", "Baby
Doll", Sweet Sue", "No Help Wanted" and "Call a
we were unable to locate any of the original Crows. Norton, the lead and
Hamilton, the bass passed away during the late 60's/ early 70's - if
alive, Davis and Major, after many attempts, have not been located.
students at Jamaica High School, Queens, NY in 1955, the Cleftones were formed
singing campaign slogans for a fellow student running for school president.
After the election, the group who first called themselves the Silvertones
started gigging around the community. The original Cleftones: Herbie Cox, Berman
Patterson, Charlie James, Warren Corbin and William McClain.
fellow student, Dave Rollneck became the youngsters manager after he showed so
much ambition in promoting the guys. He was able to get the Cleftones auditions
with various independent record companies, one of which in mid 1955 was for
George Goldner's Rama Label. Goldner liked what he heard and signed them to a
contract. The Cleftones started his new Gee (Red Label) records with member
Berman Patterson's original tune "You Baby You" Gee 1000.
Cleftones very next release became their big hit, "Little Girl of
Mine" - written by lead singer, Herbie Cox and has to date surpassed
the 1,000,000 sales mark by a wide margin. Their next 3 uptempo releases,
although not national hits like "Little Girl", still sold well in the
NYC area! "Can't We Be Sweethearts", "String Around My
Heart" and "Why Do You Do Me Like You Do" - I know I bought
them all and played them very loud and very often.
3 more releases, none of which made much noise, the Cleftones were back on the
hit charts in 1960 with "For Sentimental Reasons". The personnel of
The Cleftones had changed by 1960, Herbie Cox, Charlie James and Warren Corbin
joined new members Pat Span and Gene Pearson, formerly of the legendary
Rivileers. At this time Henry Glover, for many years a brain trust with the King
Record Complex, became A/R man for Roulette Records. He worked with the
Cleftones, experimenting with standards. In 1961, "Heart and Soul" and
"For Sentimental Reasons" were big hits for The Cleftones. Four more
releases followed on Gee and Goldner switched the group to his Rama and then his
Roulette labels with only minor success.
a few year hiatus the Cleftones reformed for the 70's Reunion Concert scene with
Herbie Cox's cousin Anthony Gaines joining the group.
passed away a couple of month's ago, original member Warren Corbin passed away
in the late 70's. We honor the Cleftones tonight and are happy to have all
surviving members here to accept our humble tributes. Some have traveled long
distances, and share our appreciation as well as our reverence for the wonderful
music they have given us.
The Four Buddies
Four Buddies were one of the many groups formed through the influence and
idolization of the #1 RnB pioneer vocal group, The Orioles. Like their idols,
the Four Buddies grew up in Baltimore and were characterized by a strong
melodic, haunting style lead. Formed in the late 40's the Four Buddies, a true
pioneer RnB group in their own right, started recording for the Newark, NJ based
Savoy Label as early as 1950.
original Four Buddies consisted of lead, Leon "Larry" Harrison, second
tenor, Gregory Carroll; baritone, Bert Palmer; and bass, Tommy Smith. The
group's first release on Savoy, "I Will Wait" was the Four Buddies
biggest hit, making it to #3 on the Billboard RnB charts. Rare copies of "I
Will Wait" (bringing up to $1,000 for a mint one) give Credit to the Four
Buds instead of Four Buddies. Although one of Savoy's most popular and
successful recording artist for 2 years the group never had a hit again.
year 1951 brought four great Four Buddies releases on Savoy "Sweet
Slumber"; "My Summer's Gone"; "Sins" and "Window
1952, two more fabulous ones, "You're Part of Me" and "What's The
Matter With Me".
the groups last Savoy Recording session early 1953 they backed up RnB songstress
Dolly Cooper on "I'd Climb The Highest Mountain." In 1954 Larry
Harrison fronted a Barons group with two releases for the Decca Record Label.
Four Buddies are one of the must overlooked quality pioneer RnB groups and I
personally am very pleased to have the group as one of our Hall of Fame
research on the group informs me that all the Four Buddies except Gregory Caroll
have passed on. Caroll sang with many RnB groups after the demise of the Four
Buddies, including Sonny Til's Orioles. He has moved from the area and all
attempts to locate him up to this point have been fruitless.
The Four Fellows
Four Fellows Quartet was known originally as the Four Toppers and included Jimmy
McGowan, Gordon Payne, Teddy Williams, and Harold Miller who became lead singer
of the Rays ("Silhouettes"). They signed with Jimmy Johnson, who also
handled the Four Knights, and appeared on Ralph Cooper's pioneering
"Spotlight on Harlem" TV Show. To convey a desired image of
"togetherness," Johnson changed their name to Four Fellows. The
"classic" Four Fellows group now included Jimmy McGowan, lead, David
"Sugar Lump" Jones, tenor, Larry Banks, baritone, and Teddy Williams,
met arranger/entrepreneur Ace Adams in 1954, who supervised their initial
"Bend of the River"/ I Tried" session for Derby After failing to
attract even local attention with their first single, the guys met
"Cherokee" Conyers, Buddy Johnson's baritone sax man. He cut the Four
Fellows on I Wish I Didn't Love You So," which, "we hoped,"
according to Jimmy McGowan's personal history of the Four Fellows, Hear Today!
Here to Stay! "on the second bridge, Larry came in with what was an
adequate imitation of Louis Armstrong." Cherokee Conyers played the record
for Philip Rose, who quickly saw the potential of the Brooklyn quartet. He
released I Wish I Didn't Love You So," backed with I Know Love," in
the early winter of 1955 to a completely indifferent response.
remembers having heard the Four Fellows' Glory debut only a few times on Tommy
"Dr. Jive" Small's popular WWRL program.
backed Bette McLaurin, another former Derby act who had been discovered by
Philip Rose in a Harlem nightclub, on "So Will I" (Glory #233), then
cut what was to be their only real hit, "Soldier Boy", in March, 1955.
McGowan sang lead on David Jones's wistful ballad, while Sugar Lump chimed in on
second lead on the second channel. "Soldier Boy" was recorded at state
of the art Capitol Recording Studios in midtown, with bassist, Abie
"Available" Baker (so called because he did so many sessions in the
mid-fifties), and Phil Rose handling the session. According to McGowan, Panama
Francis played drums on "Soldier Boy," Sam "the Man" Taylor,
sax; George Bames, guitar; and Ernie Hayes, piano. On later Four Fellows'
sessions, Bames was replaced by Mickey Baker on guitar and Buddy Tate wailed on
Boy" became a huge hit in New York City, thanks to Alan Freed's
concentrated WINS airplay. On June 4, 1955, "Soldier Boy" placed #9 on
Cashbox's regional R&B chart. The Four Fellows were invited to play the
Apollo Theatre in a Dr. Jive stage show also headlining the Moonglows, Nutmegs,
Bo Diddley, Gene and Eunice, and Buddy Johnson's band. As "Soldier
Boy" ascended the national R&B charts (it eventually peaked at #4 on
Billboard' chart, enjoying a fifteen week run - it never made the pop chart),
the Four Fellows joined a Buddy Johnson bus tour of grueling one-nighters in the
south and even played the Royal Peacock in Atlanta with Chuck Berry. Henry
Glover asked them to back white thrush Cathy Ryan on her "Come Home"
King single. Ella Fitzgerald, Mel Williams and Sunny Gale covered "Soldier
Boy," and Elvis Presley even honored the Four Fellows with his own
rendition a few years later. The Four Fellows were now faced with a familiar
dilemma; how could they follow up their first hit and become more than mere
the group's succeeding Glory singles were well‑crafted and somewhat
commercial, the Four Fellows could never repeat the hit formula they had found
with "Soldier Boy". Their immediate follow-up, "Angels
Say"/"In the Rain," was released in October, 1995, and Glory
moved to larger quarters at 2 West 47th Street in midtown in December. Rose
eventually capitalized on the emerging folk craze with two impressive pop hits,
Vince Martin'.s "Cindy Oh Cindy" (#9 in fall, 1956) and the Tarriers
"The Banana Boat Song," (#4 in the winter of 1937).
Meanwhile, tenor David "Sugar Lump" Jones decided to leave the group and neighborhood buddy Jimmy Mobley replaced him. Jones sang tenor on "Darling You," released in June, 1956, while Mobley handled that part on the "Please Don't Deprive Me of Love" flip side. The Four Fellows turned in a stellar rendition of the Otis Blackwell song, "I Sit in My Window," and ably covered Eddie Arnold's country smash, "You Don't Know Me." The Four Fellows even waxed one of their old Four Toppers' tunes, "Give Me Back My Broken Heart." Airplay became scarcer although Freed continued to play the group's singles, and both Larry Banks and Jimmy Mobley opted to depart the group. Rose finally released the Brooklyn quartet from their Glory contract and the salad days of the Four Fellows had permanently ended.
Four Fellows After the Glory Years
McGowan is a perfect study in courage, determination and optimism. Jim was
stabbed during a Bed-Stuy rumble in 1951, his singing career was interrupted,
his dreams of baseball stardom were terminated. Jim spent considerable time in
hospitals during the early Four Fellows days; at times he flirted with death.
When he was able to regain the use of his legs was, he recorded and performed.
An operation in 1970 on the cyst from the original injury on his spine left
Jimmy permanently disabled.
this operation which left him confined to a wheelchair Jim McGowan has graduated
Temple University with a B.A. in Psychology in 1978, written two books, became
Chairman of a special committee representing the disabled and is credited for
obtaining accessible public accomodations for the handicapped from the Governor
of Pennsylvania. Jim has sky dived into Lake Wallenpaupack in PA and Lake Cecil
in Flordia, in 1981, and has even made an attempt to swim the English Channel,
all this, without the use of his legs. In 1979 he was able to round up the
original Four Fellows for a UGHA Concert and record on the UGHA Label a year
later. Recently Jim had to go through another operation, this time a foot
amputation but this one of a kind gentleman still smiles, speaks with a voice of
warmth and wit and his continuous courage still fills his life with
determination and optimism.
honor Jim tonight along with the other surviving member Teddy Williams. David
Jones and Larry Banks have passed on but will always be remembered for their
contributions to our music. Larry actually continued the Four Fellows recording
with a group in the early 60's for the Ad-Lib Label. Banks wrote many of the
Four Fellows tunes and even wrote a hit for The Moody Blues in the late 60's.
"Go Now". At the time of his death he was singing with an Ink Spots
night while sprawled on the couch, I clicked on a tape of Jubalaires'
transcriptions. As the tight polished harmonies of rhythmic spirituals and
foot stomping jazz tunes filled the room, I began to write this tribute.
from the Royal Harmony Singers, the Jubalaires group was spawned by the rich
tradition of southern Jubilee styled vocal quartets.
their own show on KYW Radio, the Royal Harmony Singers arrived in Philadelphia
from Florida in 1941. Personnel included forming member and leader, Caleb
Ginyard, Jr., Theodore Brooks (baritone), Elijah Wright (bass) and Willie
Wright (tenor). Shortly after coming to Philadelphia, George
"Biggie" McFadden replaced Elijah Wright. Charles Newsome managed
popular CBS radio group, the Golden Gate Quartet, would often travel to Phila.
to catch the Royal Harmony Singers' performances. The young group in Phila.
respected the "Gates". Golden Gate Quartet lead, Willie Johnson
taught the Royal Harmony Singers his famous narrative style.
Ruth first brought the Royal Harmony Singers to New York City to appear on one
of his Selah Jubilee Singers' programs. At New York's Cafe Society the Royal
Harmony Singers were invited to substitute for the Golden Gate Quartet. They
performed tunes that were standardized by the "Gates" and were well
Keynote and Decca label recordings, the Royal Harmony Singers were renamed the
Jubalaires by general manager Paul Kapp. With the Jubalaires' relocation to
New York City, John Jennings replaced Willie Wright. Just prior to their hit
recording of "I Know", the group decided to add one more part, tenor
Orville Brooks. "I Know" was recorded with the backing of Andy
Kirk's full orchestra.
the mid 1940's, the Jubalaires had taken over for the Golden Gate Quartet on
CBS Radio. The groups' fifteen minute Sunday morning show was supplemented by
regular daily appearances on Arthur Godfreys'radio program.
Jubalaires sound was innovative, featuring rotating vocal parts with jazzy,
upbeat overtones that offered a versatile blend and repertoire. The Jubalaires
had a succession of guitar players including Abe Green, Everett Barksdale and
Roosevelt Howerton. In 1946, The Jubalaires acquired the talent of Bill Lee
Johnson. Johnson's eloquent guitar maneuvers complimented the Jubalaires'
Johnson recalled the time the Jubalaires played CBS radio and the Apollo
Theater on the same days, racing between the two. The management hired an
ambulance loaded with flashing lights and screeching sirens to satisfy the
in 1947, the Jubalaires left the Arthur Godfrey Show to go on tour. Bill
Johnson remembered that Mr. Godfrey begged the guys to stay.
almost got on his knees.' Boys don't leave me now.' Godfrey pleaded. 'We've
got a couple of irons in the fire. We're going to go commercial. Stay with
us.' But the guys didn't listen."
thereafter, Godfrey took his show to television, replacing the Jubalaires with
the Mariners. The Jubalaires tour began in the South and progressed to the
western states. When the Jubalaires reached Jacksonville, Florida, they were
joined by Willie Johnson who had left the Golden Gate Quartet. Willie served
as a mentor and sixth voice throughout the remainder of the tour. While in
California, the Jubalaires were signed to replace the Delta Rhythm Boys on the
Amos & Andy radio show.
Jubalaires returned briefly to New York before deciding to make California
their new home. Guitarist Bill Johnson decided to remain in New Jersey. Willie
the Jubalaires' new lead. Orville Brooks left the Jubalaires to become the new
lead of the Golden Gate Quartet. Within a year, Caleb Ginyard left the
Jubalaires to form the Dixieaires.
to Ginyard's departure, the Jubalaires began recording for King Queen records.
The Jubalaires also made several film appearances including Ebony Parade, The
joint Is Jumping, and The Duchess of Idaho. With the popularity of the group
on Amos & Andy, the Jubalaires signed with Capital Records. It was not
until 1952 that the groups' popularity began to diminish. But the story does
not end there.
the late 1950's, the Jubalaires resurfaced as the Jubilee Four. Personnel
included Willie Johnson, Theodore Brooks, George McFadden and Jimmy Adams. The
Jubilee Four became regulars on the Jimmy Dean TV Show and played Las Vegas
extensively. They also appeared in the Elvis Presley film Viva Las
Vegas. In 1978, Ry Cooder reunited members of the Jubalaires to back him on
some of his albums. In the early 1980's, Doug Seroff gathered the original
Jubalaires for one last reunion in Birmingham.
Nathaniel (J.C.) Ginyard, Jr.: Caleb Ginyard was a pivotal icon in black vocal
quartet singing. He immersed himself in music interpretation to strive for and
attain vocal excellence. Ginyard
was born on Juanuary 15,1910 in St. Matthews, S. Carolina. His early exposure
to music was singing spirituals with his mother at the Ebenezer Baptist
Church. As an outlet for his early talent, he also dabbled in folk blues
singing. Caleb was active in community service. Upon moving to Jacksonville,
he became a member of the Brooklyn Royal Social
Club, a group of men who enhanced the neighborhood by contributing to worthy
the "Jubes", Ginyard formed the Dixieaires. After some spectacular
recordings, the Dixieaires folded three years later and Caleb formed the Du
Droppers. In 1955, Ginyard joined the Golden Gate Quartet and was a member for
16 years. Those years with the Gates sparked the most brilliant repertoire of
Caleb's career. His addition to the group inspired the hallmark years of the
Golden Gate Quartet as well.
failing health, Caleb Ginyard left the Gates in 1971 and died in Basel,
Switzerland on August 11, 1978.
Ginyard should be remembered not only for his music contributions but for his
singular, unique personality, sensitive heart and his kind words for others.
This evening, Caleb Ginyard III will sing a tribute to his father's group.
Brooks: Orville Brooks was born in Fruitland, Maryland on January 27,1919. As
a youngster, he formed a group to sing in church. They started out singing for
cake. Orville sang with the Fruitland Harmonizers before joining Bill
Langford's Southern Sons in the early 1940's.
the Jubalaires, Orville led the Golden Gate Quartet until 1953 when he and
Gene Mumford left the Gates to form the second group of Larks. He also sang
with an Ink Spots group. Orville Brooks passed away on August 30,1997.
Tonight, Mrs.Orville Brooks will accept the award for her husband.
Lee Johnson: Bill Johnson was born in Dothan, Alabama on February 22, 1915. He
moved with his family to Newark, New Jersey the following year. Bill started
playing banjo in high school. He played house parties and worked
way up to bands. During the depression, Bill played guitar with a WPA six
piece combo. After the Jubes, Bill Johnson stayed active in music and formed
his own Lee Johnson Trio. Bill later operated the Alcazar jazz tavern in
Irvington, NJ. He has worked for the police and recreation departments for the
City of Newark. He will be accepting an award tonight.
Jubalaires contribution to the music industry was remarkable. They made hundreds
of recordings, radio transcriptions and appeared in films. The Jubalaires'
enriching contribution to the entertainment industry was priceless. Their soul-stirring
musical. renditions touched a chord with audiences across the coutnry for over
four decades. Tbough all of the original vocal members have passed away, the
Jubalaires legacy lives on.
research for this article was done by Charlie Homer and Karen Caplan. Special
thanks to all those who helped with valuable information: Mrs. Orville Brooks,
Conrad Federicks, Ray Funk, Caleb Ginyard 111, Peter Grendysa, Bill L. Johnson,
Charlie LaRocco, Bill Proctor, Thurmon Ruth, Doug Seroff, Orlandus Wilson.
a high school teenager, in early 1954, Curtis Williams joined the legendary
Hollywood Flames, a local aggregation who had formed in 1949. Williams was
with the Flames for only a few short months, but it was during this time that
he collaborated with Flames member Gaynel Hodge to write "Earth
Angel" with help from the now immortal Jesse Belvin. When he left the
Flames to try to form his own group he came upon a young tenor from Jefferson
High School, LA named Cleveland "Cleve" Duncan. After hearing Duncan
sing at a talent show at the California Club, Williams discussed the
possibility of forming a group. Duncan got 2nd tenor, Dexter Tisby from his
school, Jefferson and Williams got baritone Bruce Tate from his school,
Freemont High, also in LA.
named themselves the Penguins after Willie The Penguin, the Kools Cigarette
Cartoon Logo. The group was brought to the attention of DooTone Records owner
Dootsie Williams by a relative of Cleve Duncan, Ted Brinson, who had at one
time played bass for the Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra. Dootsie Williams brought
the Penguins into the studio to back up blues singer Willie Headen on
"There Ain't No News Today" (Doo Tone 345). He was very excited when
the group presented him with a Curtis Williams original, "Hey
Senorita" at this recording session. This session was supposed to be for
demonstration purposes only and "Earth Angel" was thrown in, a
reworked version to fit Cleve Duncan's voice.
When the 2 sides were released in December of 1954 the push side was intended to be "Hey Senorita" but after Dick "Huggy Boy" Hugg gave both sides a spin on KGJF and everyone started to call in requesting "Earth Angel". The record shot to number one on the national R&B charts by mid January 1955. This started the Penguins ballad sound with the smooth, "Cool" voice of lead singer Cleve Duncan. Although "Ookey Ook", the next release had an infectious feel, the flip, another ballad "Love Will Make Your Mind Go Wild" became the A Side. "Kiss A Fool Goodbye" in 1955 was the Penguins last release on DooToo until 1957 when they came back to Dootsie Williams and his now DooToo Label for a few more releases.
Buck Ram entered the picture. Ram owned another LA vocal group, the Platters,
but unfortunately he was stuck with a contract to the small Federal Label when
Ram made connections with Mercury, a major independent. He did get the Platters
to Mercury after contract obligations were completed with Federal by the Fall of
1955, but in the meantime took the Penguins away from Dootsie Williams and
brought them to Mercury in early 1955. Seven unsuccessful releases on Mercury by
the group and back to Dootsie Williams they went in late 56. It wasn't until
1963 that the Penguins entered another hit, "Memories of El Monte" for
the Original Sound Label.
Duncan has kept the group together all these years (44) with many personnel
changes occurring. His present group has been stable since 1970. We honor Cleve
Duncan, the voice of the Penguins and his group tonight. His "Earth
Angel" is, was and will always be "Top 5" 1950's music.
Morrisania section of the Bronx was what 115th Street was to Manhattan. New York
City's northern kingdom of rhythm and blues vocal groups to be more precise. The
legendary Wrens represent Morrisania's entry to the UGHA Hall of Fame in 1998,
preceded by the Mellows in 1996 and Chords in 1997 with more to follow in future
began for the Wrens in 1954 out of Community Center 99 starting with a trio,
George Magnezid (tenor), Francis "Frenchie" Concepcion (tenor) and
James "Archie" Archer (bass). As the trend was at this time, the group
became a bird group taking their name from a rapidly decreasing bird species
list. Magnezid brought his friend, Bobby Mansfield to the Community Center to
sing lead for the Wrens. Mansfield was younger than the other three and had to
lie about his age when the group signed with George Goldner.
Wrens first recording session for Goldner's Rama record label, Nov. 21, 1954
produced four excellent recordings, "Love's Something That's More For
Two", "Beggin' For Love" (with Frenchie on lead), "Eleven
Roses" and their soon to be signature song, "Come Back My Love"
(a Bobby Mansfield composition). On the strength of "Come Back My
Love" in the NYC area, the group toured the East Coast while the Cardinals,
who covered it for Atlantic Records had the national hit.
Wrens went back to the recording studio as the original group in October 1955
and produced "Hey Girl", "Serenade of the Bells" (another
Frenchie Concepcion lead and collector's favorite). Also two songs unissued
until the 80's, "Betty Jean" and "She's My Everything" were
recorded. By November of 1955, Archie went into the service and was replaced by
bass Rocky Washington who after recording "What Makes You Do The Things You
Do" and I Won't Come To Your Wedding" released in Dec. of 1955 as Rama
184, was never seen or heard from by the group again. A January 1956 session
produced the last Wrens Rama release, their popular version of "C'est La
Vie" which also included Richard Barrett and Ronnie Bright of the Valentines
in the group.
decided to feature Bobby Mansfield as a solo artist by recording "Wreckless"
and "House of Cards" in May of 1956 backed up by the Wrens. With the
group breaking up they remained unreleased until the 80's . Only Frenchie
Concepcion continued singing as lead of a group called the Travelers for the NYC
Atlas Record Label in 1957.
the efforts of writer and historian Marcia Vance the Wrens were reunited in 1986
and for a few years entertained UGHA audiences. To their credit another
recording was made for the Classic Artists label in the early 90's. Frenchie
moved down south and once again the Wrens broke up. The last few years have seen
Mansfield singing as part of the Morrisania Revue and Magnezid as the tenor of
the UGHA Hall of Fame Solitaires. The Wrens will always be respected for their
mellow tight harmony ballads and their smooth, ebullient up‑tempos.
we honor the original Wrens Bobby, George, Frenchie and Archie as we enter them
into our Hall of Fame.
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